Author(s): Paola Profeta, Eleanor Woodhouse.
Proportional electoral rules favour the election of women with respect to majoritarian ones. This is consistent with the fact that in majoritarian systems personal exposure of the candidate is more relevant than in proportional systems and that women tend to be averse to such exposure. To test the eﬀects of electoral rules on women’s representation and the quality of politicians, we collect panel data on the universe of Italian politicians from all levels of government over the period 1987-2013 and analyse an Italian reform which, in 2005, changed the electoral rule for national elections from (mostly) majoritarian to proportional, but did not aﬀect subnational level elections. We ﬁnd that this reform increased the number of women elected, while not decreasing the quality of politicians. We provide evidence of a negative selection eﬀect under proportional rules: the elected women are not the best candidates and the quality of elected politicians could have increased (rather than remain constant) if the best female candidates had been elected. Our results are stronger in gender traditional regions, suggesting that culture matters in terms of how electoral rules aﬀect female political representation.
Keywords: Electoral reforms,Majoritarian,Proportional,Electoral Competition,Political Selection,Difference-in-Differences.